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HttpUtility.cs

// 
// System.Web.HttpUtility
//
// Authors:
//   Patrik Torstensson (Patrik.Torstensson@labs2.com)
//   Wictor Wilén (decode/encode functions) (wictor@ibizkit.se)
//   Tim Coleman (tim@timcoleman.com)
//   Gonzalo Paniagua Javier (gonzalo@ximian.com)
//
// Copyright (C) 2005 Novell, Inc (http://www.novell.com)
//
// Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining
// a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the
// "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including
// without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish,
// distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to
// permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to
// the following conditions:
// 
// The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be
// included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
// 
// THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND,
// EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF
// MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND
// NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE
// LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION
// OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION
// WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.
//

using System.Collections;
using System.Collections.Specialized;
using System.Globalization;
using System.IO;
using System.Security.Permissions;
using System.Text;
using System.Web.Util;

#if NET_2_0
using System.Collections.Generic;
#endif

namespace System.Web {

#if !MONOTOUCH
      // CAS - no InheritanceDemand here as the class is sealed
      [AspNetHostingPermission (SecurityAction.LinkDemand, Level = AspNetHostingPermissionLevel.Minimal)]
#endif

00051       public sealed class HttpUtility {
            #region Fields
      
            static Hashtable entities;
            static object lock_ = new object ();
      
            #endregion // Fields
      
            static Hashtable Entities {
                  get {
                        lock (lock_) {
                              if (entities == null)
                                    InitEntities ();

                              return entities;
                        }
                  }
            }
            
            #region Constructors

            static void InitEntities ()
            {
                  // Build the hash table of HTML entity references.  This list comes
                  // from the HTML 4.01 W3C recommendation.
                  entities = new Hashtable ();
                  entities.Add ("nbsp", '\u00A0');
                  entities.Add ("iexcl", '\u00A1');
                  entities.Add ("cent", '\u00A2');
                  entities.Add ("pound", '\u00A3');
                  entities.Add ("curren", '\u00A4');
                  entities.Add ("yen", '\u00A5');
                  entities.Add ("brvbar", '\u00A6');
                  entities.Add ("sect", '\u00A7');
                  entities.Add ("uml", '\u00A8');
                  entities.Add ("copy", '\u00A9');
                  entities.Add ("ordf", '\u00AA');
                  entities.Add ("laquo", '\u00AB');
                  entities.Add ("not", '\u00AC');
                  entities.Add ("shy", '\u00AD');
                  entities.Add ("reg", '\u00AE');
                  entities.Add ("macr", '\u00AF');
                  entities.Add ("deg", '\u00B0');
                  entities.Add ("plusmn", '\u00B1');
                  entities.Add ("sup2", '\u00B2');
                  entities.Add ("sup3", '\u00B3');
                  entities.Add ("acute", '\u00B4');
                  entities.Add ("micro", '\u00B5');
                  entities.Add ("para", '\u00B6');
                  entities.Add ("middot", '\u00B7');
                  entities.Add ("cedil", '\u00B8');
                  entities.Add ("sup1", '\u00B9');
                  entities.Add ("ordm", '\u00BA');
                  entities.Add ("raquo", '\u00BB');
                  entities.Add ("frac14", '\u00BC');
                  entities.Add ("frac12", '\u00BD');
                  entities.Add ("frac34", '\u00BE');
                  entities.Add ("iquest", '\u00BF');
                  entities.Add ("Agrave", '\u00C0');
                  entities.Add ("Aacute", '\u00C1');
                  entities.Add ("Acirc", '\u00C2');
                  entities.Add ("Atilde", '\u00C3');
                  entities.Add ("Auml", '\u00C4');
                  entities.Add ("Aring", '\u00C5');
                  entities.Add ("AElig", '\u00C6');
                  entities.Add ("Ccedil", '\u00C7');
                  entities.Add ("Egrave", '\u00C8');
                  entities.Add ("Eacute", '\u00C9');
                  entities.Add ("Ecirc", '\u00CA');
                  entities.Add ("Euml", '\u00CB');
                  entities.Add ("Igrave", '\u00CC');
                  entities.Add ("Iacute", '\u00CD');
                  entities.Add ("Icirc", '\u00CE');
                  entities.Add ("Iuml", '\u00CF');
                  entities.Add ("ETH", '\u00D0');
                  entities.Add ("Ntilde", '\u00D1');
                  entities.Add ("Ograve", '\u00D2');
                  entities.Add ("Oacute", '\u00D3');
                  entities.Add ("Ocirc", '\u00D4');
                  entities.Add ("Otilde", '\u00D5');
                  entities.Add ("Ouml", '\u00D6');
                  entities.Add ("times", '\u00D7');
                  entities.Add ("Oslash", '\u00D8');
                  entities.Add ("Ugrave", '\u00D9');
                  entities.Add ("Uacute", '\u00DA');
                  entities.Add ("Ucirc", '\u00DB');
                  entities.Add ("Uuml", '\u00DC');
                  entities.Add ("Yacute", '\u00DD');
                  entities.Add ("THORN", '\u00DE');
                  entities.Add ("szlig", '\u00DF');
                  entities.Add ("agrave", '\u00E0');
                  entities.Add ("aacute", '\u00E1');
                  entities.Add ("acirc", '\u00E2');
                  entities.Add ("atilde", '\u00E3');
                  entities.Add ("auml", '\u00E4');
                  entities.Add ("aring", '\u00E5');
                  entities.Add ("aelig", '\u00E6');
                  entities.Add ("ccedil", '\u00E7');
                  entities.Add ("egrave", '\u00E8');
                  entities.Add ("eacute", '\u00E9');
                  entities.Add ("ecirc", '\u00EA');
                  entities.Add ("euml", '\u00EB');
                  entities.Add ("igrave", '\u00EC');
                  entities.Add ("iacute", '\u00ED');
                  entities.Add ("icirc", '\u00EE');
                  entities.Add ("iuml", '\u00EF');
                  entities.Add ("eth", '\u00F0');
                  entities.Add ("ntilde", '\u00F1');
                  entities.Add ("ograve", '\u00F2');
                  entities.Add ("oacute", '\u00F3');
                  entities.Add ("ocirc", '\u00F4');
                  entities.Add ("otilde", '\u00F5');
                  entities.Add ("ouml", '\u00F6');
                  entities.Add ("divide", '\u00F7');
                  entities.Add ("oslash", '\u00F8');
                  entities.Add ("ugrave", '\u00F9');
                  entities.Add ("uacute", '\u00FA');
                  entities.Add ("ucirc", '\u00FB');
                  entities.Add ("uuml", '\u00FC');
                  entities.Add ("yacute", '\u00FD');
                  entities.Add ("thorn", '\u00FE');
                  entities.Add ("yuml", '\u00FF');
                  entities.Add ("fnof", '\u0192');
                  entities.Add ("Alpha", '\u0391');
                  entities.Add ("Beta", '\u0392');
                  entities.Add ("Gamma", '\u0393');
                  entities.Add ("Delta", '\u0394');
                  entities.Add ("Epsilon", '\u0395');
                  entities.Add ("Zeta", '\u0396');
                  entities.Add ("Eta", '\u0397');
                  entities.Add ("Theta", '\u0398');
                  entities.Add ("Iota", '\u0399');
                  entities.Add ("Kappa", '\u039A');
                  entities.Add ("Lambda", '\u039B');
                  entities.Add ("Mu", '\u039C');
                  entities.Add ("Nu", '\u039D');
                  entities.Add ("Xi", '\u039E');
                  entities.Add ("Omicron", '\u039F');
                  entities.Add ("Pi", '\u03A0');
                  entities.Add ("Rho", '\u03A1');
                  entities.Add ("Sigma", '\u03A3');
                  entities.Add ("Tau", '\u03A4');
                  entities.Add ("Upsilon", '\u03A5');
                  entities.Add ("Phi", '\u03A6');
                  entities.Add ("Chi", '\u03A7');
                  entities.Add ("Psi", '\u03A8');
                  entities.Add ("Omega", '\u03A9');
                  entities.Add ("alpha", '\u03B1');
                  entities.Add ("beta", '\u03B2');
                  entities.Add ("gamma", '\u03B3');
                  entities.Add ("delta", '\u03B4');
                  entities.Add ("epsilon", '\u03B5');
                  entities.Add ("zeta", '\u03B6');
                  entities.Add ("eta", '\u03B7');
                  entities.Add ("theta", '\u03B8');
                  entities.Add ("iota", '\u03B9');
                  entities.Add ("kappa", '\u03BA');
                  entities.Add ("lambda", '\u03BB');
                  entities.Add ("mu", '\u03BC');
                  entities.Add ("nu", '\u03BD');
                  entities.Add ("xi", '\u03BE');
                  entities.Add ("omicron", '\u03BF');
                  entities.Add ("pi", '\u03C0');
                  entities.Add ("rho", '\u03C1');
                  entities.Add ("sigmaf", '\u03C2');
                  entities.Add ("sigma", '\u03C3');
                  entities.Add ("tau", '\u03C4');
                  entities.Add ("upsilon", '\u03C5');
                  entities.Add ("phi", '\u03C6');
                  entities.Add ("chi", '\u03C7');
                  entities.Add ("psi", '\u03C8');
                  entities.Add ("omega", '\u03C9');
                  entities.Add ("thetasym", '\u03D1');
                  entities.Add ("upsih", '\u03D2');
                  entities.Add ("piv", '\u03D6');
                  entities.Add ("bull", '\u2022');
                  entities.Add ("hellip", '\u2026');
                  entities.Add ("prime", '\u2032');
                  entities.Add ("Prime", '\u2033');
                  entities.Add ("oline", '\u203E');
                  entities.Add ("frasl", '\u2044');
                  entities.Add ("weierp", '\u2118');
                  entities.Add ("image", '\u2111');
                  entities.Add ("real", '\u211C');
                  entities.Add ("trade", '\u2122');
                  entities.Add ("alefsym", '\u2135');
                  entities.Add ("larr", '\u2190');
                  entities.Add ("uarr", '\u2191');
                  entities.Add ("rarr", '\u2192');
                  entities.Add ("darr", '\u2193');
                  entities.Add ("harr", '\u2194');
                  entities.Add ("crarr", '\u21B5');
                  entities.Add ("lArr", '\u21D0');
                  entities.Add ("uArr", '\u21D1');
                  entities.Add ("rArr", '\u21D2');
                  entities.Add ("dArr", '\u21D3');
                  entities.Add ("hArr", '\u21D4');
                  entities.Add ("forall", '\u2200');
                  entities.Add ("part", '\u2202');
                  entities.Add ("exist", '\u2203');
                  entities.Add ("empty", '\u2205');
                  entities.Add ("nabla", '\u2207');
                  entities.Add ("isin", '\u2208');
                  entities.Add ("notin", '\u2209');
                  entities.Add ("ni", '\u220B');
                  entities.Add ("prod", '\u220F');
                  entities.Add ("sum", '\u2211');
                  entities.Add ("minus", '\u2212');
                  entities.Add ("lowast", '\u2217');
                  entities.Add ("radic", '\u221A');
                  entities.Add ("prop", '\u221D');
                  entities.Add ("infin", '\u221E');
                  entities.Add ("ang", '\u2220');
                  entities.Add ("and", '\u2227');
                  entities.Add ("or", '\u2228');
                  entities.Add ("cap", '\u2229');
                  entities.Add ("cup", '\u222A');
                  entities.Add ("int", '\u222B');
                  entities.Add ("there4", '\u2234');
                  entities.Add ("sim", '\u223C');
                  entities.Add ("cong", '\u2245');
                  entities.Add ("asymp", '\u2248');
                  entities.Add ("ne", '\u2260');
                  entities.Add ("equiv", '\u2261');
                  entities.Add ("le", '\u2264');
                  entities.Add ("ge", '\u2265');
                  entities.Add ("sub", '\u2282');
                  entities.Add ("sup", '\u2283');
                  entities.Add ("nsub", '\u2284');
                  entities.Add ("sube", '\u2286');
                  entities.Add ("supe", '\u2287');
                  entities.Add ("oplus", '\u2295');
                  entities.Add ("otimes", '\u2297');
                  entities.Add ("perp", '\u22A5');
                  entities.Add ("sdot", '\u22C5');
                  entities.Add ("lceil", '\u2308');
                  entities.Add ("rceil", '\u2309');
                  entities.Add ("lfloor", '\u230A');
                  entities.Add ("rfloor", '\u230B');
                  entities.Add ("lang", '\u2329');
                  entities.Add ("rang", '\u232A');
                  entities.Add ("loz", '\u25CA');
                  entities.Add ("spades", '\u2660');
                  entities.Add ("clubs", '\u2663');
                  entities.Add ("hearts", '\u2665');
                  entities.Add ("diams", '\u2666');
                  entities.Add ("quot", '\u0022');
                  entities.Add ("amp", '\u0026');
                  entities.Add ("lt", '\u003C');
                  entities.Add ("gt", '\u003E');
                  entities.Add ("OElig", '\u0152');
                  entities.Add ("oelig", '\u0153');
                  entities.Add ("Scaron", '\u0160');
                  entities.Add ("scaron", '\u0161');
                  entities.Add ("Yuml", '\u0178');
                  entities.Add ("circ", '\u02C6');
                  entities.Add ("tilde", '\u02DC');
                  entities.Add ("ensp", '\u2002');
                  entities.Add ("emsp", '\u2003');
                  entities.Add ("thinsp", '\u2009');
                  entities.Add ("zwnj", '\u200C');
                  entities.Add ("zwj", '\u200D');
                  entities.Add ("lrm", '\u200E');
                  entities.Add ("rlm", '\u200F');
                  entities.Add ("ndash", '\u2013');
                  entities.Add ("mdash", '\u2014');
                  entities.Add ("lsquo", '\u2018');
                  entities.Add ("rsquo", '\u2019');
                  entities.Add ("sbquo", '\u201A');
                  entities.Add ("ldquo", '\u201C');
                  entities.Add ("rdquo", '\u201D');
                  entities.Add ("bdquo", '\u201E');
                  entities.Add ("dagger", '\u2020');
                  entities.Add ("Dagger", '\u2021');
                  entities.Add ("permil", '\u2030');
                  entities.Add ("lsaquo", '\u2039');
                  entities.Add ("rsaquo", '\u203A');
                  entities.Add ("euro", '\u20AC');
            }

            public HttpUtility () 
            {
            }
      
            #endregion // Constructors
      
            #region Methods
      
            public static void HtmlAttributeEncode (string s, TextWriter output) 
            {
                  output.Write(HtmlAttributeEncode(s));
            }
      
            public static string HtmlAttributeEncode (string s) 
            {
                  if (null == s) 
                        return null;
      
                  bool needEncode = false;
                  for (int i = 0; i < s.Length; i++) {
                        if (s [i] == '&' || s [i] == '"' || s [i] == '<') {
                              needEncode = true;
                              break;
                        }
                  }

                  if (!needEncode)
                        return s;

                  StringBuilder output = new StringBuilder ();
                  int len = s.Length;
                  for (int i = 0; i < len; i++)
                        switch (s [i]) {
                        case '&' : 
                              output.Append ("&amp;");
                              break;
                        case '"' :
                              output.Append ("&quot;");
                              break;
                        case '<':
                              output.Append ("&lt;");
                              break;
                        default:
                              output.Append (s [i]);
                              break;
                        }
      
                  return output.ToString();
            }
      
            public static string UrlDecode (string str) 
            {
                  return UrlDecode(str, Encoding.UTF8);
            }
      
            static char [] GetChars (MemoryStream b, Encoding e)
            {
                  return e.GetChars (b.GetBuffer (), 0, (int) b.Length);
            }

            static void WriteCharBytes (IList buf, char ch, Encoding e)
            {
                  if (ch > 255) {
                        foreach (byte b in e.GetBytes (new char[] { ch }))
                              buf.Add (b);
                  } else
                        buf.Add ((byte)ch);
            }
            
            public static string UrlDecode (string s, Encoding e)
            {
                  if (null == s) 
                        return null;

                  if (s.IndexOf ('%') == -1 && s.IndexOf ('+') == -1)
                        return s;
                  
                  if (e == null)
                        e = Encoding.UTF8;

                  long len = s.Length;
#if NET_2_0
                  var bytes = new List <byte> ();
#else
                  ArrayList bytes = new ArrayList ();
#endif
                  int xchar;
                  char ch;
                  
                  for (int i = 0; i < len; i++) {
                        ch = s [i];
                        if (ch == '%' && i + 2 < len && s [i + 1] != '%') {
                              if (s [i + 1] == 'u' && i + 5 < len) {
                                    // unicode hex sequence
                                    xchar = GetChar (s, i + 2, 4);
                                    if (xchar != -1) {
                                          WriteCharBytes (bytes, (char)xchar, e);
                                          i += 5;
                                    } else
                                          WriteCharBytes (bytes, '%', e);
                              } else if ((xchar = GetChar (s, i + 1, 2)) != -1) {
                                    WriteCharBytes (bytes, (char)xchar, e);
                                    i += 2;
                              } else {
                                    WriteCharBytes (bytes, '%', e);
                              }
                              continue;
                        }

                        if (ch == '+')
                              WriteCharBytes (bytes, ' ', e);
                        else
                              WriteCharBytes (bytes, ch, e);
                  }
                  
#if NET_2_0
                  byte[] buf = bytes.ToArray ();
#else
                  byte[] buf = (byte[])bytes.ToArray (typeof (byte));
#endif
                  bytes = null;
                  return e.GetString (buf);
                  
            }
      
            public static string UrlDecode (byte [] bytes, Encoding e)
            {
                  if (bytes == null)
                        return null;

                  return UrlDecode (bytes, 0, bytes.Length, e);
            }

            static int GetInt (byte b)
            {
                  char c = (char) b;
                  if (c >= '0' && c <= '9')
                        return c - '0';

                  if (c >= 'a' && c <= 'f')
                        return c - 'a' + 10;

                  if (c >= 'A' && c <= 'F')
                        return c - 'A' + 10;

                  return -1;
            }

            static int GetChar (byte [] bytes, int offset, int length)
            {
                  int value = 0;
                  int end = length + offset;
                  for (int i = offset; i < end; i++) {
                        int current = GetInt (bytes [i]);
                        if (current == -1)
                              return -1;
                        value = (value << 4) + current;
                  }

                  return value;
            }

            static int GetChar (string str, int offset, int length)
            {
                  int val = 0;
                  int end = length + offset;
                  for (int i = offset; i < end; i++) {
                        char c = str [i];
                        if (c > 127)
                              return -1;

                        int current = GetInt ((byte) c);
                        if (current == -1)
                              return -1;
                        val = (val << 4) + current;
                  }

                  return val;
            }
            
            public static string UrlDecode (byte [] bytes, int offset, int count, Encoding e)
            {
                  if (bytes == null)
                        return null;
                  if (count == 0)
                        return String.Empty;

                  if (bytes == null)
                        throw new ArgumentNullException ("bytes");

                  if (offset < 0 || offset > bytes.Length)
                        throw new ArgumentOutOfRangeException ("offset");

                  if (count < 0 || offset + count > bytes.Length)
                        throw new ArgumentOutOfRangeException ("count");

                  StringBuilder output = new StringBuilder ();
                  MemoryStream acc = new MemoryStream ();

                  int end = count + offset;
                  int xchar;
                  for (int i = offset; i < end; i++) {
                        if (bytes [i] == '%' && i + 2 < count && bytes [i + 1] != '%') {
                              if (bytes [i + 1] == (byte) 'u' && i + 5 < end) {
                                    if (acc.Length > 0) {
                                          output.Append (GetChars (acc, e));
                                          acc.SetLength (0);
                                    }
                                    xchar = GetChar (bytes, i + 2, 4);
                                    if (xchar != -1) {
                                          output.Append ((char) xchar);
                                          i += 5;
                                          continue;
                                    }
                              } else if ((xchar = GetChar (bytes, i + 1, 2)) != -1) {
                                    acc.WriteByte ((byte) xchar);
                                    i += 2;
                                    continue;
                              }
                        }

                        if (acc.Length > 0) {
                              output.Append (GetChars (acc, e));
                              acc.SetLength (0);
                        }

                        if (bytes [i] == '+') {
                              output.Append (' ');
                        } else {
                              output.Append ((char) bytes [i]);
                        }
                  }

                  if (acc.Length > 0) {
                        output.Append (GetChars (acc, e));
                  }
                  
                  acc = null;
                  return output.ToString ();
            }
      
            public static byte [] UrlDecodeToBytes (byte [] bytes)
            {
                  if (bytes == null)
                        return null;

                  return UrlDecodeToBytes (bytes, 0, bytes.Length);
            }

            public static byte [] UrlDecodeToBytes (string str)
            {
                  return UrlDecodeToBytes (str, Encoding.UTF8);
            }

            public static byte [] UrlDecodeToBytes (string str, Encoding e)
            {
                  if (str == null)
                        return null;

                  if (e == null)
                        throw new ArgumentNullException ("e");

                  return UrlDecodeToBytes (e.GetBytes (str));
            }

            public static byte [] UrlDecodeToBytes (byte [] bytes, int offset, int count)
            {
                  if (bytes == null)
                        return null;
                  if (count == 0)
                        return new byte [0];

                  int len = bytes.Length;
                  if (offset < 0 || offset >= len)
                        throw new ArgumentOutOfRangeException("offset");

                  if (count < 0 || offset > len - count)
                        throw new ArgumentOutOfRangeException("count");

                  MemoryStream result = new MemoryStream ();
                  int end = offset + count;
                  for (int i = offset; i < end; i++){
                        char c = (char) bytes [i];
                        if (c == '+') {
                              c = ' ';
                        } else if (c == '%' && i < end - 2) {
                              int xchar = GetChar (bytes, i + 1, 2);
                              if (xchar != -1) {
                                    c = (char) xchar;
                                    i += 2;
                              }
                        }
                        result.WriteByte ((byte) c);
                  }

                  return result.ToArray ();
            }

            public static string UrlEncode(string str) 
            {
                  return UrlEncode(str, Encoding.UTF8);
            }
      
            public static string UrlEncode (string s, Encoding Enc) 
            {
                  if (s == null)
                        return null;

                  if (s == "")
                        return "";

                  bool needEncode = false;
                  int len = s.Length;
                  for (int i = 0; i < len; i++) {
                        char c = s [i];
                        if ((c < '0') || (c < 'A' && c > '9') || (c > 'Z' && c < 'a') || (c > 'z')) {
                              if (NotEncoded (c))
                                    continue;

                              needEncode = true;
                              break;
                        }
                  }

                  if (!needEncode)
                        return s;

                  // avoided GetByteCount call
                  byte [] bytes = new byte[Enc.GetMaxByteCount(s.Length)];
                  int realLen = Enc.GetBytes (s, 0, s.Length, bytes, 0);
                  return Encoding.ASCII.GetString (UrlEncodeToBytes (bytes, 0, realLen));
            }
        
            public static string UrlEncode (byte [] bytes)
            {
                  if (bytes == null)
                        return null;

                  if (bytes.Length == 0)
                        return "";

                  return Encoding.ASCII.GetString (UrlEncodeToBytes (bytes, 0, bytes.Length));
            }

            public static string UrlEncode (byte [] bytes, int offset, int count)
            {
                  if (bytes == null)
                        return null;

                  if (bytes.Length == 0)
                        return "";

                  return Encoding.ASCII.GetString (UrlEncodeToBytes (bytes, offset, count));
            }

            public static byte [] UrlEncodeToBytes (string str)
            {
                  return UrlEncodeToBytes (str, Encoding.UTF8);
            }

            public static byte [] UrlEncodeToBytes (string str, Encoding e)
            {
                  if (str == null)
                        return null;

                  if (str == "")
                        return new byte [0];

                  byte [] bytes = e.GetBytes (str);
                  return UrlEncodeToBytes (bytes, 0, bytes.Length);
            }

            public static byte [] UrlEncodeToBytes (byte [] bytes)
            {
                  if (bytes == null)
                        return null;

                  if (bytes.Length == 0)
                        return new byte [0];

                  return UrlEncodeToBytes (bytes, 0, bytes.Length);
            }

            static char [] hexChars = "0123456789abcdef".ToCharArray ();

            static bool NotEncoded (char c)
            {
                  return (c == '!' || c == '\'' || c == '(' || c == ')' || c == '*' || c == '-' || c == '.' || c == '_');
            }

            static void UrlEncodeChar (char c, Stream result, bool isUnicode) {
                  if (c > 255) {
                        //FIXME: what happens when there is an internal error?
                        //if (!isUnicode)
                        //    throw new ArgumentOutOfRangeException ("c", c, "c must be less than 256");
                        int idx;
                        int i = (int) c;

                        result.WriteByte ((byte)'%');
                        result.WriteByte ((byte)'u');
                        idx = i >> 12;
                        result.WriteByte ((byte)hexChars [idx]);
                        idx = (i >> 8) & 0x0F;
                        result.WriteByte ((byte)hexChars [idx]);
                        idx = (i >> 4) & 0x0F;
                        result.WriteByte ((byte)hexChars [idx]);
                        idx = i & 0x0F;
                        result.WriteByte ((byte)hexChars [idx]);
                        return;
                  }
                  
                  if (c > ' ' && NotEncoded (c)) {
                        result.WriteByte ((byte)c);
                        return;
                  }
                  if (c==' ') {
                        result.WriteByte ((byte)'+');
                        return;
                  }
                  if (  (c < '0') ||
                        (c < 'A' && c > '9') ||
                        (c > 'Z' && c < 'a') ||
                        (c > 'z')) {
                        if (isUnicode && c > 127) {
                              result.WriteByte ((byte)'%');
                              result.WriteByte ((byte)'u');
                              result.WriteByte ((byte)'0');
                              result.WriteByte ((byte)'0');
                        }
                        else
                              result.WriteByte ((byte)'%');
                        
                        int idx = ((int) c) >> 4;
                        result.WriteByte ((byte)hexChars [idx]);
                        idx = ((int) c) & 0x0F;
                        result.WriteByte ((byte)hexChars [idx]);
                  }
                  else
                        result.WriteByte ((byte)c);
            }

            public static byte [] UrlEncodeToBytes (byte [] bytes, int offset, int count)
            {
                  if (bytes == null)
                        return null;

                  int len = bytes.Length;
                  if (len == 0)
                        return new byte [0];

                  if (offset < 0 || offset >= len)
                        throw new ArgumentOutOfRangeException("offset");

                  if (count < 0 || count > len - offset)
                        throw new ArgumentOutOfRangeException("count");

                  MemoryStream result = new MemoryStream (count);
                  int end = offset + count;
                  for (int i = offset; i < end; i++)
                        UrlEncodeChar ((char)bytes [i], result, false);

                  return result.ToArray();
            }

            public static string UrlEncodeUnicode (string str)
            {
                  if (str == null)
                        return null;

                  return Encoding.ASCII.GetString (UrlEncodeUnicodeToBytes (str));
            }

            public static byte [] UrlEncodeUnicodeToBytes (string str)
            {
                  if (str == null)
                        return null;

                  if (str == "")
                        return new byte [0];

                  MemoryStream result = new MemoryStream (str.Length);
                  foreach (char c in str){
                        UrlEncodeChar (c, result, true);
                  }
                  return result.ToArray ();
            }

            /// <summary>
            /// Decodes an HTML-encoded string and returns the decoded string.
            /// </summary>
            /// <param name="s">The HTML string to decode. </param>
            /// <returns>The decoded text.</returns>
00823             public static string HtmlDecode (string s) 
            {
                  if (s == null)
                        throw new ArgumentNullException ("s");

                  if (s.IndexOf ('&') == -1)
                        return s;

                  StringBuilder entity = new StringBuilder ();
                  StringBuilder output = new StringBuilder ();
                  int len = s.Length;
                  // 0 -> nothing,
                  // 1 -> right after '&'
                  // 2 -> between '&' and ';' but no '#'
                  // 3 -> '#' found after '&' and getting numbers
                  int state = 0;
                  int number = 0;
                  bool have_trailing_digits = false;
      
                  for (int i = 0; i < len; i++) {
                        char c = s [i];
                        if (state == 0) {
                              if (c == '&') {
                                    entity.Append (c);
                                    state = 1;
                              } else {
                                    output.Append (c);
                              }
                              continue;
                        }

                        if (c == '&') {
                              state = 1;
                              if (have_trailing_digits) {
                                    entity.Append (number.ToString (Helpers.InvariantCulture));
                                    have_trailing_digits = false;
                              }

                              output.Append (entity.ToString ());
                              entity.Length = 0;
                              entity.Append ('&');
                              continue;
                        }

                        if (state == 1) {
                              if (c == ';') {
                                    state = 0;
                                    output.Append (entity.ToString ());
                                    output.Append (c);
                                    entity.Length = 0;
                              } else {
                                    number = 0;
                                    if (c != '#') {
                                          state = 2;
                                    } else {
                                          state = 3;
                                    }
                                    entity.Append (c);
                              }
                        } else if (state == 2) {
                              entity.Append (c);
                              if (c == ';') {
                                    string key = entity.ToString ();
                                    if (key.Length > 1 && Entities.ContainsKey (key.Substring (1, key.Length - 2)))
                                          key = Entities [key.Substring (1, key.Length - 2)].ToString ();

                                    output.Append (key);
                                    state = 0;
                                    entity.Length = 0;
                              }
                        } else if (state == 3) {
                              if (c == ';') {
                                    if (number > 65535) {
                                          output.Append ("&#");
                                          output.Append (number.ToString (Helpers.InvariantCulture));
                                          output.Append (";");
                                    } else {
                                          output.Append ((char) number);
                                    }
                                    state = 0;
                                    entity.Length = 0;
                                    have_trailing_digits = false;
                              } else if (Char.IsDigit (c)) {
                                    number = number * 10 + ((int) c - '0');
                                    have_trailing_digits = true;
                              } else {
                                    state = 2;
                                    if (have_trailing_digits) {
                                          entity.Append (number.ToString (Helpers.InvariantCulture));
                                          have_trailing_digits = false;
                                    }
                                    entity.Append (c);
                              }
                        }
                  }

                  if (entity.Length > 0) {
                        output.Append (entity.ToString ());
                  } else if (have_trailing_digits) {
                        output.Append (number.ToString (Helpers.InvariantCulture));
                  }
                  return output.ToString ();
            }
      
            /// <summary>
            /// Decodes an HTML-encoded string and sends the resulting output to a TextWriter output stream.
            /// </summary>
            /// <param name="s">The HTML string to decode</param>
            /// <param name="output">The TextWriter output stream containing the decoded string. </param>
00932             public static void HtmlDecode(string s, TextWriter output) 
            {
                  if (s != null)
                        output.Write (HtmlDecode (s));
            }
      
            /// <summary>
            /// HTML-encodes a string and returns the encoded string.
            /// </summary>
            /// <param name="s">The text string to encode. </param>
            /// <returns>The HTML-encoded text.</returns>
00943             public static string HtmlEncode (string s) 
            {
                  if (s == null)
                        return null;

                  bool needEncode = false;
                  for (int i = 0; i < s.Length; i++) {
                        char c = s [i];
                        if (c == '&' || c == '"' || c == '<' || c == '>' || c > 159) {
                              needEncode = true;
                              break;
                        }
                  }

                  if (!needEncode)
                        return s;

                  StringBuilder output = new StringBuilder ();
                  
                  int len = s.Length;
                  for (int i = 0; i < len; i++) 
                        switch (s [i]) {
                        case '&' :
                              output.Append ("&amp;");
                              break;
                        case '>' : 
                              output.Append ("&gt;");
                              break;
                        case '<' :
                              output.Append ("&lt;");
                              break;
                        case '"' :
                              output.Append ("&quot;");
                              break;
                        default:
                              // MS starts encoding with &# from 160 and stops at 255.
                              // We don't do that. One reason is the 65308/65310 unicode
                              // characters that look like '<' and '>'.
#if TARGET_JVM
                              if (s [i] > 159 && s [i] < 256) {
#else
                              if (s [i] > 159) {
#endif
                                    output.Append ("&#");
                                    output.Append (((int) s [i]).ToString (Helpers.InvariantCulture));
                                    output.Append (";");
                              } else {
                                    output.Append (s [i]);
                              }
                              break;
                        }
                  return output.ToString ();
            }
      
            /// <summary>
            /// HTML-encodes a string and sends the resulting output to a TextWriter output stream.
            /// </summary>
            /// <param name="s">The string to encode. </param>
            /// <param name="output">The TextWriter output stream containing the encoded string. </param>
01002             public static void HtmlEncode(string s, TextWriter output) 
            {
                  if (s != null)
                        output.Write (HtmlEncode (s));
            }

#if NET_1_1
            public static string UrlPathEncode (string s)
            {
                  if (s == null || s.Length == 0)
                        return s;

                  MemoryStream result = new MemoryStream ();
                  int length = s.Length;
            for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) {
                        UrlPathEncodeChar (s [i], result);
                  }
                  return Encoding.ASCII.GetString (result.ToArray ());
            }
            
            static void UrlPathEncodeChar (char c, Stream result) {
#if NET_2_0
                  if (c < 33 || c > 126) {
#else
                  if (c > 127) {
#endif
                        byte [] bIn = Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes (c.ToString ());
                        for (int i = 0; i < bIn.Length; i++) {
                              result.WriteByte ((byte) '%');
                              int idx = ((int) bIn [i]) >> 4;
                              result.WriteByte ((byte) hexChars [idx]);
                              idx = ((int) bIn [i]) & 0x0F;
                              result.WriteByte ((byte) hexChars [idx]);
                        }
                  }
                  else if (c == ' ') {
                        result.WriteByte ((byte) '%');
                        result.WriteByte ((byte) '2');
                        result.WriteByte ((byte) '0');
                  }
                  else
                        result.WriteByte ((byte) c);
            }
#endif

#if NET_2_0
            class HttpQSCollection : NameValueCollection {
                  public override string ToString ()
                  {
                        int count = Count;
                        if (count == 0)
                              return "";
                        StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder ();
                        string [] keys = AllKeys;
                        for (int i = 0; i < count; i++) {
                              sb.AppendFormat ("{0}={1}&", keys [i], this [keys [i]]);
                        }
                        if (sb.Length > 0)
                              sb.Length--;
                        return sb.ToString ();
                  }
            }

            public static NameValueCollection ParseQueryString (string query)
            {
                  return ParseQueryString (query, Encoding.UTF8);
            }

            public static NameValueCollection ParseQueryString (string query, Encoding encoding)
            {
                  if (query == null)
                        throw new ArgumentNullException ("query");
                  if (encoding == null)
                        throw new ArgumentNullException ("encoding");
                  if (query.Length == 0 || (query.Length == 1 && query[0] == '?'))
                        return new NameValueCollection ();
                  if (query[0] == '?')
                        query = query.Substring (1);
                        
                  NameValueCollection result = new HttpQSCollection ();
                  ParseQueryString (query, encoding, result);
                  return result;
            }                       
#endif

            internal static void ParseQueryString (string query, Encoding encoding, NameValueCollection result)
            {
                  if (query.Length == 0)
                        return;

                  string decoded = HtmlDecode (query);
                  int decodedLength = decoded.Length;
                  int namePos = 0;
                  bool first = true;
                  while (namePos <= decodedLength) {
                        int valuePos = -1, valueEnd = -1;
                        for (int q = namePos; q < decodedLength; q++) {
                              if (valuePos == -1 && decoded [q] == '=') {
                                    valuePos = q + 1;
                              } else if (decoded [q] == '&') {
                                    valueEnd = q;
                                    break;
                              }
                        }

                        if (first) {
                              first = false;
                              if (decoded [namePos] == '?')
                                    namePos++;
                        }
                        
                        string name, value;
                        if (valuePos == -1) {
                              name = null;
                              valuePos = namePos;
                        } else {
                              name = UrlDecode (decoded.Substring (namePos, valuePos - namePos - 1), encoding);
                        }
                        if (valueEnd < 0) {
                              namePos = -1;
                              valueEnd = decoded.Length;
                        } else {
                              namePos = valueEnd + 1;
                        }
                        value = UrlDecode (decoded.Substring (valuePos, valueEnd - valuePos), encoding);

                        result.Add (name, value);
                        if (namePos == -1)
                              break;
                  }
            }
            #endregion // Methods
      }
}


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